For ‘A’ Level purposes, discourse can be said to be any use of language of different social groups or occasions. It is the ‘putting of thought into langauge’. Note that the ‘discourse’ (and ‘text) applies to written and spoken modes.
This term refers to the ways that discourse is organised into coherent wholes. The structure gives cohesion.
You will be acquainted with a huge variety of discourse structures: they are the means by which text producers create text cohesion and you will have employed a huge variety, yourself. Discourse structures include:
Lists/instructions e.g. recipes; self-assembly furniture
Problem/solution e.g. speeches; advertisements
Counter argument / argument / conclusion e.g. persuasive writing
Logical argument e.g. Reason 1, Reason 2, Intermediate Conclusion, Reason 4, Main Conclusion
GCSE literature essays: e.g. PEA paragraphs (Point, Evidence, Analysis)
Narrative structure in novels might include elements such as: chronology; parallel plots; flashback; different narrative voices.
These are ‘linguistic signposts’. The fulfil a variety of functions such as:
Addition e.g. also, too, as well, moreover
Consequence e.g. so, as a result, consequently, thus
Comparison and contrast e.g. just as, similarly, in contrast, unlike
Temporal e.g. later, then, next, afterwards
Enumeration e.g. first, finally.
Summative e.g. To conclude, all things considered, at the end of the day, on the whole
See my main Language Notes webpage
Michael Goldberg’s site page: Now unavailable.
The English Biz Glossary of Linguistics is a very useful site which explains complicated matters clearly.
‘i love english language’ is a well informed, anonymous blog, giving clearly explained synopses of theories and terminology:
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