Genette (1972) coins the term ‘focalization’, saying that a third person narrator may have:
(1) an internal focus i.e. a character’s perception or knowledge is only presented;
(2) an external focus i.e. the character knows apparently more than the narrator;
(3) a zero focus i.e. an omniscient narrator who knows more than the character.
Of course, writers often shift their focalization within a given piece of work.
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